Preferences and utility theory are critical concepts in microeconomics, explaining household decision-making behavior. Preferences refer to how households make choices necessary to satisfy their needs when comparing bundles of goods. Utility theory uses mathematical concepts to express these preferences and elucidate household satisfaction levels. Rational preferences must meet completeness, transitiveness, continuity, convexity, and monotonousness. Various preferences exist, including substitutes, complements, perfect and imperfect substitutes, and perfect compliments. Preference and utility theory ultimately help derive the formal opportunity costs of alternatives in household theory.
Production technology in economics refers to the sum of all knowledge and capabilities of the society to combine scarce resources to produce final goods for consumption. This concept covers all industrial processes and exchanges within the value chain. The production function is the mathematical interpretation of production technology. Important concepts include the return to scale, the marginal product of inputs, and the change of marginal productivity. These concepts are also applied at both microeconomic and macroeconomic levels. The understanding of production technology requires some mathematical background.
How modern is democracy?
Is the modern global society the Democracy we want and the World in which the future generations would like be born into? The current society needs to familiarize itself with the principles of democracy, amidst the current trend in society to neglect the willingness to diplomatic cooperative and constructive dialogue between different views and ideologies.