Production technology in economics refers to the sum of all knowledge and capabilities of the society to combine scarce resources to produce final goods for consumption. This concept covers all industrial processes and exchanges within the value chain. The production function is the mathematical interpretation of production technology. Important concepts include the return to scale, the marginal product of inputs, and the change of marginal productivity. These concepts are also applied at both microeconomic and macroeconomic levels. The understanding of production technology requires some mathematical background.