## Future of Sustainable Cooling Systems

Our focal point in the area of cooling technology is the topic “The future of sustainable cooling systems”. In practically every technical system in the most diverse areas of application, e.g. terminals at the port, in data centers, in building services engineering etc., an air conditioning unit is at least integrated or installed. Air conditioning systems are responsible for a significant part of the worldwide Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy consumption.

Which contribution can intelligent air conditioning systems make to the reduction of CO2 emissions and energy consumption? What are the advantages of investing in sustainable air conditioning systems? My name is James E. Njoroge, M. Sc. I graduated from the Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg im Breisgau with a Master’s and Bachelor’s degree in Economics in 2015. In 2012, I started working on a new port project APMT MV II Rotterdam through ABB Crane Systems (Västeras) at Elektrotechnik Janssen GmbH, where I have been dealing with the implementation of an ABB patented sustainable cooling system we name “Heat Exchanger System (HES)“.

## Basic Principle of a Sustainable Cooling System

Today, I am working on the topic “The future of sustainable cooling systems” in the terminal area of ports as well as other areas of application, e.g. in the cooling of data centers. My personal inspiration for natural sciences (mathematics, physics, and chemistry) goes back to my school days in Kenya.

ABB has the patent (No. PCT/EP2013/064008) with the topic “Discharge of heat from the electrical switch house on the crane“. The inventors are Bo Edmundsson & Horst Schneider. In the electrical switch house (E-House) there are heat-generating as well as sensitive components. In order to guarantee operational safety, the heat generated must be efficiently extracted from the electrical building.

“The basic principle of the “Heat Exchanger System” (HES) is: “Warm air rises to the top and cold air falls to the bottom” and this principle is implemented in the “Heat Exchanger Unit” (HEU as a subcomponent of the HES).”

Mr. Horst Schneider

Sustainability in cooling systems could make a huge contribution to the reduction of CO2 emissions, increasing efficiency, and operational safety in all areas of application.

## From a technical, ecological, and economic point of view, what problems should a cooling system in an electrical switch-gear building resolve?

The general conditions inside and outside of the electrical switch-gear building (e.g. weather, movement by crane, etc.) influence the cooling capacity required for heat discharge (output) and the energy required for heat removal (input). From a technical point of view, the heat extraction should guarantee the highest possible operational safety. This should be done in such a way that, from an ecological and economic point of view, the lowest possible costs for the extraction of heat are incurred. Operational safety at the terminal means that the crane is always ready for operation and can carry out its activities without disturbance. The costs of heat removal are subject to the opportunity principle when selecting alternative heat removal options.

## Which goal do terminal operators pursue when optimizing cooling systems on water-side cranes and automated stacking cranes?

Terminal operators as end-users of the Heat Exchanger System achieve higher operational safety and at the same time optimize the energy consumption for heat dissipation from summer to winter, day and night in the electrical switch house for the automated cranes. Teamwork between the various stakeholders make a major contribution to achieving the terminal operator’s goals. The various stakeholders in the implementation of the HES in the Port of Hamburg (CTB) are HHLA Hamburg and HCCR Hamburg, ABB Cranes System Västerås, Sweden, Elektrotechnik Janssen GmbH, Nordenham, KÜNZ GmbH Hard, Austria, Kampmann Gruppe/NOVA Donaueschingen, Reiss Kälte und Klima Freiburg im Breisgau.

## How important are sustainability and climate neutrality for terminals?

HHLA’s goal: a climate-neutral company by 2040” is the corporate strategy of Hamburger Hafen und Logistik (HHLA) AG on the subject of sustainability. HHLA’s sustainability strategy is managed under the “Balanced Logistics” brand, says Chief Executive Officer Ms Titzrath. Another example of how climate neutrality and sustainability are important for terminals worldwide is shown by AMPT’s Maasvlakte II terminal in Rotterdam, Netherlands, where the Heat-Exchanger-System (HES) is integrated in all fully automated stacking cranes and rail loading cranes. HHLA justifies its sustainability orientation by the fact that it wants to be both economically successful in its business fields and to assume its social and ecological responsibility in society. This also means that HHLA wants to create a balance between economic and ecological efficiency.

Share

## What is Econometrics?

Econometrics is part of economics as a science. It deals with the statistical (empirical) modelling of economic theories (hypotheses) in order to explain, confirm or disprove economic theory empirically. In economic theory, causalities between two (or more) relevant measures are assumed, e.g. the relationship between income (Y) and consumption (C) of a household. Two causalities can be suspected: (1) The consumption of a household depends on its income: C(Y) or (2) the income of a household depends on its consumption: Y(C). Both statements (theory/hypotheses) are not opposed to each other (no contradiction), but are inversely related to each other (inverse causality). Using a sample or total population of households a statistical unit of interest and econometric methods it is possible to test both hypotheses for their internal validity and external validity.

## Scope of Econometrics

Econometrics quantifies the theoretical hypotheses (economic theory) by testing corresponding empirical statements (empirical model). If we hypothesize that the consumption of individual households has a positive relationship with household income, the resulting empirical model should confirm or disprove the positive relationship between consumption and household income in the sample and in the household population.

## Exam preparation for Econometrics

We offer exam preparation for econometrics as well as for other fields of economics, e.g. macroeconomics, microeconomics, business mathematics, statistics etc. Our goal is to have a positive and enriching effect on your learning process through professional support. Thus we would like to help you to understand both simple and complex economic methods in the respective subject. Book your personal appointment for exam preparation for Econometrics today. We will accompany your learning process carefully and help you to understand both simple and complex econometric methods.

## Exam preparation for students in Freiburg

Contact us and find out more about our examination preparation for students in Freiburg. We are your emergency service for exams in Freiburg!

Share

## Our Christmas wishes to you

Merry Christmas and a happy new year 2020. Jesus is born. Enjoy this festive season with your family, friends, business partners, employees, and even people you might not know. Make friends, invest in your family and friends to promote a cohesive relationship. Motivate each other to success regardless of any seeming impossibilities ahead. Let them know that you will be there, when they need you.

## Fröhliche Weichnachten und guten Rutsch ins neue Jahr

Fröhliche Weihnachten und einen guten Rutsch ins neue Jahr 2020. Jesus ist geboren. Genießen Sie diese festliche Zeit mit Ihrer Familie, Ihren Freunden, Geschäftspartnern, Mitarbeitern und sogar mit Menschen, die Sie vielleicht nicht kennen. Schließen Sie Freundschaften, investieren Sie in Ihre Familie und Ihre Freunde, um den Zusammenhalt zu fördern. motivieren Sie sich gegenseitig zum Erfolg, ungeachtet der vor Ihnen liegenden Unmöglichkeiten. Lassen Sie sie wissen, dass Sie da sein werden, wenn sie Sie brauchen.

Share

## How to explain the Omitted Variable Bias

In regression analysis, the omitted-variable-bias is the error that is incurred on partial-effects-coefficients of other explanatory variables in a restricted regression model. Assume a simple regression model, where Variable $y_i$ is explained by the Variable $x_{1i}$ and the error term $e_i$ for $i=[1,2,3, … , n]$ observations:

y_i=\beta_0+\beta_1\cdot x_{1i}+ e_i \,, \forall i=[ 1, 2, 3, …,n]

Then consider the hypothesis, that a Variable $x_{2i}$ explains the dependent variable $y_i$ and can be depicted by the following extended regression model:

y_i=\tilde\beta_0 + \tilde\beta_1 \cdot x_{1i} + \tilde\beta_2 \cdot x_{2i} + v_i

Setting both equations equal and solving for the error term of the simple:

e_i=(\tilde\beta_0-\beta_0)+(\tilde\beta_1-\beta_1)\cdot x_{1i} +\tilde\beta_2 \cdot x_{2i} + v_i

The error term $e_i$ in the simple regression model includes the deviation of $\tilde\beta_0$ and $\tilde\beta_2$ of the extended regression model from the former coefficients. The partial effects of the omitted variables $\tilde\beta_2$ and the error term of the extended regression model $v_i$ are also included in the error term of the simple regression model. Two factors play a role in the quantification of the omitted-variable-bias:

1. Partial effects of the omitted-variable on the explained variable.
2. Correlation and Covariance of the omitted variable with the rest of the explanatory variables

## Partial effects of Omitted Variable and Correlation with Other Explanatory Variables

Two outcomes are possible: either there is no bias or there is a positive bias or negative bias on the partial effects of other explanatory variables in the restricted model.

### A. No Bias Scenario

If the omitted-variable has zero partial effects in the unrestricted model or zero correlation/covariance (independence between explanatory variables) there is no bias incurred on other partial effects in the restricted model.

### B. Negative Bias Scenario

Negative (positive) partial effects of omitted-variable and positive (negative) correlation with other explanatory variables simultaneously leads to a negative bias on the partial effects of other partial effects of explanatory variables in the restricted model. In this case the signs are in opposite terms (+ and – ).

### C. Positive Bias Scenario

Positive partial effects of omitted-variable and positive correlation with other explanatory variables simultaneously lead to a negative bias on the partial effects of other partial effects of explanatory variables in the restricted model. Similarly, if we simultaneously have negative signs. In this case we have two possible constellations ( + and +) or (- and – ).

Share

## The Technique of Scientific Writing in Economics

Since I started training individual students from several economic faculties in German Universities about the technique of scientific writing, they asked me where they could find some inspiration to get an appropriate topic for their Bachelor and Master thesis. Depending on the regulations of your university, the supervising professor or lecturer may suggest a specific topic (area of research). Another alternative, the lecturer may give you handouts as an inspiration (starting point) for your research and expect that you will define your own specific research question and then consult with them to fix the final topic. Before you spend a lot of time beating about the bush on how to come up with a convincing draft, your proposal should contain the following ingredients: (research topic, abstract, table of content that shows a clear argumentation line, list of literature sources, model, methodology).

To arrive at your final convincing draft, you will need to observe the following sub-processes.

### 1. Define the Economic Problem in your Thesis

Designing your economic research topic begins with the definition of the economic problem you would like to review and analyze, e. g. such a topic “The impact of global trade imbalances on the European Union (EU)”. In such a topic, the economic problem is the “global trade imbalances”, while the “European Union (EU)” limits the context of the analysis.

### 2. Construct a Mind-Map for your Economic Problem and Context

At this point you should draw a mind-map depicting two general areas: (a) global trade imbalances and (b) European Union (EU), connected with an arrow from (a) to (b) to resemble (c). This and its impact is your main focus in dealing with the economic problem and the chosen context. Using a mind-map you can develop relevant keywords relating to your topic and potential theories that relate to each topic area, e. g. in (a) global trade imbalances is a macroeconomic topic on international trade, while (b) European Union (EU) is also an economic topic of economic policy (institutions), economic integration, international economics as well as international trade. This should give you a hint about the topics you should be familiar with or the literature you should consult.

### 3. Create spontaneous Mind-Maps and Literature-based Mind-Maps

Each time you need an idea for your thesis contract a mind-map out of your spontaneous knowledgebase. Afterwards use literature sources to construct literature-based and specific mind-maps of what a certain source delivers to you. Now you should have more than one mind-map that talks about the same topic, but from different perspectives (inspiration). Look for commonalities between your spontaneous ideas and the literature sources. Apply critical thinking: ask yourself, why there are differences and whether other sources may help to bridge the gap or not.

Share

## Why Diversity Programs Fail.

Diversity is a societal fact that should be an integral part of our social life in our communities, organizations, public spaces, societal representation, and involvement, among many other social settings.

Diversity in organizations can fail. Economies and Organizations need a clear strategic plan from their Leaders for implementation of diversity in their society and organizational environment using the following tools:

• Engagement of organizational and societal members responsible of implementing diversity in the Organization and Economy.
• Encouraging contact between organizational groups and teams as well as communities and social groups in economies.
• Designing incentives for social accountability for the implemented diversity within the organization and the economy

## Read why diversity programs fail

The following article was published on the July–August 2016 issue (pp.52–60) of Harvard Business Review.

## Munich University of Applied Sciences & Diversity

“… but there is more behind it: Diversity means consciously dealing with diversity in society. It is an organizational and socio-political concept that propagates an appreciative, conscious, and respectful approach to diversity and individuality. Diversity is not oriented towards deficits or attempts to find solutions to supposed problems. Rather, diversity is about recognizing people’s diverse achievements and experiences and understanding and using them as potential. … The reduction of discrimination and the promotion of equal opportunities are the central goals. The core dimensions of diversity, which represent the diversity of people, are usually considered to be the following: Age, gender, ethnicity, social origin, sexual orientation, and physical and mental condition. … At universities, diversity means that a variety of university members interact with each other, exchange ideas, influence each other, learn from each other, and with each other and develop further.

According to the Munich University of Applied Sciences. Visit their blog on diversity.

Munich University of Applied Sciences is one of the largest universities of applied sciences in Germany. With its wide range of courses, a strong focus on applied research, and practical orientation with partners from business, society, and politics, it offers students excellent opportunities on the job market and in science. The courses offered by the Munich University of Applied Sciences cover the fields of technology, economics, social affairs, and design. The courses are aimed at different target groups: Full-time and part-time students, professionals, and those interested in further education as well as dual students in bachelor, master, and certification programs. In addition to academic qualifications for experts and managers, the program also offers scientific specializations that prepare students for a Doctorate. Cooperation with companies and institutions is an integral part of the program and ensures practical relevance. In addition to professional training, students can develop their individual profiles. They prepare students for the working world shaped by digitization by offers for entrepreneurial, sustainable, and intercultural thinking and acting.

## Promoting Diversity at Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg

The Student Union (StuRa) – at the Albert-Ludwig University of Freiburg has been funding the Autonomous Unit for Gender and Diversity at the University of Freiburg since 2015 (Project 1 of 2017: Diversity Sensitization at the University of Freiburg, granted 41,543.50 € and Project 2 of 2019: Diversity in teaching – Fit for the challenges of a diverse university, granted 65,681.25 €) with the aim of improving the implementation of diversity in the university´s culture.

“As part of the project competition “Innovative Studies 2015“, the autonomous departments of the student representatives have successfully applied for the project “Diversity Sensitisation at the University of Freiburg” (Innovation Fund). The project started on 15 October 2015 and will run until 15 April 2017. Project coordination is carried out by the Gender and Diversity Unit. … one of the university’s goals is to offer all students the best possible study conditions in a non-discriminatory, open, and respectful environment. An essential contribution to this is made by teaching that is designed to be diversity-sensitive and geared to the needs of all students. In the course of the proposed project Diversity in Teaching – Fit for the Challenges of a Diverse University, (subject-)specific workshops for teachers in all 11 faculties and other teaching institutions of the university are to be designed and carried out. The aim is to sensitize teachers to gender and diversity issues and to show them ways in which they can do justice to the diverse learning strategies, experiences, and needs of the study participants.”

The Autonomous Unit for Gender and Diversity at Albert-Ludwig-University of Freiburg im Breisgau

## Diversity Management at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has set a stakeholder dependent diversity management platform based on six self-defined dimensions of diversity; (1) Equal opportunities (2) Reconciling work and family life (3) inclusion (4) intercultural-ism (5) professional culture and (6) generation management.

“… The KIT and all its institutions in research, teaching, and science support areas are committed to a culture of diversity and mutual respect, recognition and appreciation, openness and transparency and see the successful and sustainable fulfillment of structural diversity as an intrinsic goal of their activities. … The concept of diversity is already structurally anchored in the strategy of KIT in various places. This is clearly visible above all in the umbrella strategy “KIT 2025”, in the anchoring in the mission statement, the auditing as a family-friendly university, and the admission to the Best Practice Club “Family in the University”. … KIT’s Diversity Management supports employees and students in an increasingly complex working, research and study environment to deal constructively with the great variety of different life plans and social as well as cultural backgrounds and to integrate them profitably into everyday working life. In order to fulfill an exemplary function as a public institution in society, KIT has set itself the goal of creating a barrier-free and non-discriminatory working, teaching, and learning environment in which cooperation is possible. … Diversity Management serves as a central platform for those institutions at KIT that deal with the diversity of employees and students, promotes the comprehensive exchange, and initiates joint projects. … The individual diversity of KIT’s employees and students is particularly emphasized in the sense of a positive appreciation and thus a productive overall atmosphere. The focus is not on the minority itself, but on all employees and students in their differences and similarities. At KIT, a number of institutions dealing with the diversity of employees and students. Diversity Management offers these institutions a platform for mutual exchange, for interdisciplinary discussion and for joint action.

Diversity Management at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

Share